Present Perfect Tense is used to express the activity or action that is completed in the present. This kind of tense is often used in analytical and hortatory exposition text.

Present Perfect Tense is used:

1. to express an activity which occurred at unspecific time in the past (the specific time is not important). In other words, if there is a specific time, you just use “Simple Past Tense”

Example: Father has gone to Mekkah. He went last year.

2. to express an activity that was repeatedly carried out at unspecific time in the past (the specific time is not important).

Example: I have used this camera several times

3. to express an activity that began in the past and continues to the present time, specially when used with ‘for or since’.

4. To express changes that have taken place

Example: Santi has turned to be a shy girl since her fathr passed away.

Note:

1. Present perfect tense may not use a specific time (the exact time is not important)

Example: I have seen that film last week. ( wrong )

We have visited the museum yesterday. (wrong)

2. The contraction form of ‘have dan has’

I have = I’ve ( aiv ) He has = he’s ( hiz )

You have = You’ve (yuv) She has = she’s (syiz)

We have = we’ve (wiv) It has = It’s (its)

They have = They’ve (theiv)

3. Yet and Already are used in present perfect tense:

Yet is used in negative statements and questions.

Already is used in positive statements and questions.

Example : A. Have you typed the letter already?

B. Yes, I have typed it already

Yes, I have already typed it.

A. Have you typed the letter yet?

B. No, I have not typed it yet

No, I have not yet typed it.

Look at the use of “to be” in Present Perfect tense.

Subject + have / has + to be + (a) Adjective

(been) (b) Noun

(c) Adverb of place

John has been a politician since four years ago.

Wati has been in Medan for three years.

Albert has been sick since yesterday.

We can also use “verbs” in Present Perfect Tense

Subject + has / have + V3

Garry has visited German twice this year.

William and Bill have gone to the hill to see the landslides.

  • Positive and Negative form

I have seen the accident.

You haven’t solved the problem

He has bought a new house for his family.

She hasn’t had a new business.

  • Yes / no Question Short answer

Have you finished? Yes, I have / No, I haven’t

Has she finished? Yes, she has / No, she hasn’t

  • Wh Question

Where have you been?

Where has she been?